Qualitative analysis

Case studies

Theme
Biography
Object
Sociological investigation of Jean Monnet
Context
France, 1950
Goal
Find the traces of social love in the biographical experience
Approach
Micro social
Theoretical reference
Interpretativism and Weberian approach
Methods and techniques
Documentary analysis, historical analysis
Focus on social love
Processes of institutionalization of social love
Theme
Interculture
Object
Community of Christians and Muslims
Context
Algeria (Tlemcen), 1966-2012
Goal
Identify the reasons for the birth of a sui generis community of Muslims that shares the culture of unity with Christians
Approach
Micro social
Theoretical reference
Interpretativism and Weberian approach
Methods and techniques
Mixed methods (documentary analysis, biographical study, interviews)
Focus on social love
Social love institutionalization processes
Result
“Tragicity of acting”: no homologating conversion, but an experience of fraternity
Theme
Formation and identity processes
Object
Handicraft school for the social promotion of the population and culture of Calchaquì
Context
Argentina (Catamarca), 1970-2011
Goal
Evaluate the evidence against the hypothesis of social love in the origin and impact of the school
Approach
Social Meso
Theoretical reference
Interpretativism and Weberian approach
Methods and techniques
Mixed methods (documentary analysis, biographical study, interviews)
Focus on social love
Social love institutionalization processes
Result
Habitus of social love: foundation of the school and birth of new daily practices
Theme
Social service
Object
Professional action of social workers
Context
Italy (Sardinia), 2010-2013
Goal
Detect the presence of traces of social love in the relational styles underlying the help
Approach
Social Meso
Theoretical reference
Symbolic interactionism
Methods and techniques
Non-participating observation (shadowing)
Focus on social love
How social love works
Result
«Excess» of the professional behaviors of social workers with respect to the ethical constraints
Theme
Social policies
Object
Local health and social services
Context
Italy (Sardinia), 2016
Goal
Identify good surplus practices in local health and social policies
Approach
Social macro
Theoretical reference
Public policy analysis
Methods and techniques
Documentary analysis, historical analysis
Focus on social love
Social love institutionalization processes
Result
Generativity: social policies capable of nourishing systems of trust, communities of solidarity
Theme
Biography
Object
Sociological investigation of Divjak
Context
Serbia (Sarajevo) and Bosnia, 1994-2012
Goal
Identify characteristics of social love in the historical and biographical experience
Approach
Micro social
Theoretical reference
Historical approach
Methods and techniques
Documentary analysis, historical analysis
Focus on social love
Characteristics of social love
Result
Radicality and universality of social love
Theme
Culture of sharing
Object
Peer to peer and internet system
Context
USA and other countries, 1970-2016
Goal
Identify characteristics of social love in historical experience
Approach
Social macro
Theoretical reference
Historical approach and typification
Methods and techniques
Documentary analysis, historical analysis
Focus on social love
How social love works
Result
Characteristics of social love: inadequacy and poor purity, related to the limited duration
Theme
Biographies
Object
Sociological survey on Perlasca
Context
Hungary (Budapest), 1944-1945
Goal
Identify characteristics of social love in the historical and biographical experience
Approach
Micro social
Theoretical reference
Historical approach
Methods and techniques
Documentary analysis, historical analysis
Focus on social love
Characteristics of social love
Result
Radicality and universality of social love
Theme
Culture of sharing
Object
Practice of suspended assets (coffee, books, shopping, holidays and permits)
Context
Italy and other countries, 2013-2015
Goal
Identify the reasons for the spread (virality), multiplication and differentiation of the phenomenon
Approach
Micro and meso social
Theoretical reference
Symbolic interactionism
Methods and techniques
Mixed methods (documentary analysis, biographical study, interviews)
Focus on social love
How social love works
Result
“Open solidarity”: assets suspended by an undue or necessary act, which produces a benefit without being claimed or deserved
Theme
Social service
Object
Social workers / Users of social services relationship
Context
North America (Canada and USA), 2006-2009
Goal
Detect the presence of bidirectional transformative effects in the relationship between social workers and customers / users
Approach
Micro social
Theoretical reference
Social constructivism
Methods and techniques
Secondary analysis / meta-analysis
Focus on social love
How social love works
Result
“Generativity” of care relationships: the clients observed are not passive subjects, but producers of the operators

Survey studies

Study unit
Male and female student aged 14-16
Space-time context
Italy 2017
Survey method
Questionnaire administered in 106 upper secondary schools (2023 students)
Characteristics of the instrument
Sprecher and Fehr – Compassionate Love Scale (12 out of 21 items of the scale used), 2 original indicators derived from the concept of agapic acting (6-12)

Tab. Prosocial behaviors, altruism and agapic acting (scale 1-7) n= 2023

 

Total F-M
N= 2023

Female 
n= 1074

Male 
n= 948

F-M

1. I always try to help others when they are experiencing difficult moments

5,60

5,92

5,25

0,67

2. I try to understand rather than judge people

5,25

5,45

5,02

0,43

3. If I encounter a stranger who needs help, I would do almost anything I could to help him or her

5,08

5,30

4,82

0,48

4. When I see people I do not know feeling sad, I feel a need to reach out to them

4,92

5,19

4,60

0,59

5. I can not be happy if those around me are not happy too

4,89

5,10

4,66

0,44

6. If they ask me to give up some of my time to help someone, I spontaneously commit myself for a longer period of time

4,64

4,95

4,30

0,65

7. I always share my possessions with others

4,30

4,38

4,21

0,17

8. It is easy for me to feel the pain and joy experienced by others

4,15

4,53

3,72

0,81

9. It is easy for me to feel the pain and joy experienced by others

4,05

4,31

3,75

0,56

10. would be willing to put up with everything for the good of another person

3,99

4,14

3,83

0,31

11. I spend a lot of time concerned about the well-being of humankind

3,81

4,11

3,47

0,64

12. I normally give money to others without knowing what use will be made of it

2,31

2,39

2,23

0,16

Short results

Constant difference exists between the orientation of males and females. With respect to all of the items females obtain a higher value. The score average is also quite high: nine indicators obtain values ​​above 4 on a scale of 1 to 7.
These results exceed those that had been hypothesized and highlight that prosocial and altruistic attitudes, in general, are considered important among adolescents.
Four responses result in a greater difference between males and females (1-6-8-11) and in particular an item relating to agapic action, i.e., the item concerning one’s availability of time with an attitude of exceedance. These items represent orientations of greater commitment, from both the point of view of altruism and also from the point of view of agapic action and empathy as a capacity to identify oneself with the needs of others. The female orientation thus differs from the male orientation as regards both the type of attitude and the intensity of adherence. Finally, it may be noted that the two indicators of agapic action stimulate very different impressions, as foreseen in the initial hypotheses. In this perspective, an attitude of exceedance over an indefinite period of time attracts favorable response than the idea of ​​donating money without knowing how it will be really used.

 
Study unit
Italian individuals (males and females) aged 18 and over (f: 52.2)
Space-time context
Survey carried out between 27 June and 3 July 2020, representative sample of the Italian population no: 1003 cases
Survey method
300 cases with the Cati method, 703 cases with the Cawi method

On a scale of 1 to 7 how much you agree with the following statements (1 not at all, 7 very much agree)

1.       If it happens to me, I also help a stranger in difficulty

Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly agree

2.       If I am doing something that can help a person, I try to give my best regardless of the energy spent

Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly agree

3.       I often do a kindness to people I don’t know

Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly agree

4.       I try to understand rather than judge a person, even when they’re wrong

Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly agree

5.       I’m always the first to lend a hand when someone is in need

Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly agree

 

On a scale of 1 to 7 how much you agree with the following statements (1 not at all, 7 very much agree)

1.       If they ask me to offer some time to help someone, I spontaneously commit myself for a longer time

Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly agree

2.       I always try to help others when they go through difficult times

Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly agree

3.       I happen to donate money to other people, even without knowing what use will be made of it

Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly agree

4.      I would be willing to put up with everything for the sake of another

Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly agree

5.       I spend a lot of time worrying about the well-being of others

Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly agree

Short results

The study made it possible to construct an altruism index measured considering the lockdown period experienced in Italy, which was then compared with some variables.
It is noted that women have a higher tension to altruism and with increasing age the index considered also increases.
Also from a geographical point of view there are significant differences, in the areas of southern Italy there is a higher index of altruism. Finally, religiosity also affects altruism: Christians and believers in other confessions have a higher index of altruism.